Also referred to as “drawing the quarters” this is a way of acknowledging the four cardinal directions and their Elemental associations, as well as the chosen deities of the coven or solitary Witch. In a coven, either the High Priestess, the High Priest, or another coven member will walk around the circle, stopping in each cardinal direction to invoke the presence of its associated Element and, if applicable, god or goddess. (It should be remembered here that not all cover structures involve hierarchy—some covens simply have each member take turns performing this and any other necessary roles in ritual.) Specific words are usually spoken to invoke the specific powers and blessings of the element and/or deity being called. Once this is complete, the space is ready for the heart of the ritual.