Gods and Goddesses: Plant Associations

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Gods and plants go together like milk and cookies. This may seem strange for some, but there are those who understand how the gods came to be in the minds of the ancient people. The mighty gods and goddesses arose from animistic beliefs (the belief that all things have a soul or consciousness), which included trees and plants. There were certain places in nature that were considered sacred and so were guarded by nature spirits. These nature spirits came to be deified and passed down through mythology as gods and goddesses. So we can see how plants and trees might be very closely associated with gods and goddesses.

For pagans who want a quick reference to multiple gods and goddesses and their plant associations, I have developed an A-Z reference list. This list is broken up by gods and goddesses, and then alphabetically arranged. The deities are not categorized by culture or origin. Knowing plants associated with your god and goddess will help you learn more about that deity, as well as gives you an idea of offerings.
This list can also be used as a reference for writers, historians, folklorists, mythologists, etc. If you have a god or goddess that isn’t included and you’d like plant associations added to the list, please leave a comment at the end.

Goddesses and Their Plant Associations

Aphrodite – apples, linden tree, myrtle tree, pomegranate, poppies, prickly lettuce, roses, star of bethlehem
Artemis – artemisia (mugwort, southernwood, tarragon, wormwood), bay laurel, cedar, chase tree, fir, myrtle, oak, walnut, wild fig, willow
Astarte – alder, arabic gum, cypress, juniper, myrtle, pine
Athena – cinnamon, citrus, cedar, cypress, dragon’s blood, geranium, hellebore, oak, olive, patchouli
Arianrhod – ivy
Baba Yaga – black sunflowers, medicinal herbs, poppies, rye, tobacco
Bast (Bastet) – catnip
Berchta – birch, evergreens, flax, wild berries
Blodeuwedd – broom, meadowsweet, and oak
Brighid – blackberries, oak, rushes
Cerridwen – corn
Circe – Alder, juniper, mandrake, nightshade
Demeter – barley, chaste tree, fig, oak, mint, poppies, pomegranate, pennyroyal, wheat
Diana – apple, grain, oak
Freya – apples, barley, flowers
Hathor – blue lotus
Hecate – asphodel, black poplar, date palm, garlic, henna, lavender, mandrake, medicinal herbs (various), pomegranate
Hel – beech, elder, elm, ivy, juniper, mullein, willow, yew
Hera – chaste tree
Hestia – Angel’s trumpet (Datura), California poppy, chaste tree, goldenrod, hollyhock, purple coneflower, and yarrow
Holda – flax
Iris – iris
Isis – flowers, myrrh, sycomore fig, vervain
Kali – red hibiscus, red rhododendron, poinsettia
Kuan Yin – lotus, oolong tea leaves, orange, pomegranate, willow
Ma’at – papyrus
Medea – aconite, hemlock, nightshade
Morgan Le Fay – apple, blackthorn, herbs, lily of the valley, oak, willow
The Morrigan – blackthorn, Belladonna, Juniper berries, Nightshade, Dragon’s blood, Mugwart, Yew
Nerthus – beech, blackthorn, elder, elm, ivy, juniper, mullein, thistle, willow, yew
Oya – anise, aspen, cinnamon, carnation, calamus, clove, dragon’s blood, dittany of crete, hibiscus, lemon, myrrh, nutmeg, oak moss, star anise, sandalwood, tangerine
Persephone – asphodel, crocus, iris, larkspur, lily, pomegranate
Rhiannon – bayberry, cedar, daffodils, forsythia, leeks, pansies, pine, rosemary and sage
White Buffalo Woman – tobacco

Gods and Their Plant Associations

Aries – ash
Baron Samedi – Tobacco, Sugar Cane
Buddha – rice, lotus
Cernunnos – oak, ivy, grain
Dagda – grains, oats
Dionysus – bindweed, elm, fennel, fig, fir, grapes, ivy, walnut
Elegba – Bitter melon
Hades – asphodel, elm
Hermes – crocus
Jesus – aspen, cedar, grapes, oak, olive, palm
Jupiter – acorn, agrimony, almond, aloe, aspen, beech, cassia, carnation, cedar, cypress, daisy, fig, gorse, hyssop, leek, mullein, oak, olive, orange, palm, pine, sage, vervain, violate
Krishna – acacia, bay, frankincense, vine
Loki – beech, blackthorn, elder, elm, ivy, juniper, mullein, thistle, willow, yew
Mabon – apple, berries, grains
Manannan Mac Lir – aquatic plants, seaweed
Mars – bay laurel, dogwood, fig, oak
Odin – amanita muscaria, elecampane, juniper, monkshood, Wotan’s Herb
Osiris – acacia, benzoin, cedar, clove, dittany of crete, grains, ivy, orris, palm date, tamarisk, vine, willow
Pan – grapes, pine, reeds
Poseidon – aquatic plants, kelp, seaweeds, wild celery
Ra – acacia, bay, cinnamon, frankincense, heliotrope, myrrh, olive, sunflower, vine
Set – myrrh, patchouli, thistle
Thor – acorns, avens, dragon’s blood, juniper, oak, oak moss, pine, thistle
Thoth – bamboo, papyrus
Tyr – blackthorn, juniper, oak, thistle, vervain
Zeus – ash, crocus, wild celery